The subsidies granted by municipal bodies may cover up to 80% of the projects submitted that relate to and deal with the social and solidarity economy.

Sustainability, participation, inclusion and commitment to the community are some of the values ​​that govern the so-called social and solidarity economy (ESS), a set of socio-economic initiatives that drink from the influence of the cooperative movement.

Barcelona has some 4,700 initiatives of this type, of which 2,400 are entities of the third sector and 861 are cooperatives, according to the study ‘L’economia social i solidària a Barcelona’ (2016).
The initiatives included in this alternative economic model, where the satisfaction of the needs of people is above profit, have the support of the City Council, as demonstrated by the approval of the Pla d’Impuls to the social economy and solidarity to Barcelona 2016-2019 ‘. The current municipal government highlights from the ESS model its ability to create more stable jobs and combat inequalities, both social and territorial.

In this sense, the plan of the city council – a fruit of a previous diagnosis and the contributions gathered in a hundred meetings with different agents such as companies, networks and federations – contemplates visibilizar this alternative economic model, support new projects generating stable and sustainable occupation And strengthen existing projects.


With these objectives, two calls for grants, amounting to € 1.9 million, have been launched, which for the first time will cover up to 80% of the total cost of the projects to ensure their viability.

The recipients of this call are entities and companies of ESS, of small dimension, but also groups of people with projects of community economy that are not formalized with legal form.



In recent years, in the international debate on future economic progress, the concept of sustainable development has become a central element. Our lifestyle has changed very rapidly in this century because of the great advances of science and technology and issues such as environmental problems are increasingly important in the debate on defining future development models.

The conservation of natural resources, the rationalization of agricultural production or the control of pollutants are topics that are treated by their importance every day by governments (national and sub-national), economists and environmental pressure groups, who find support Of an increasingly large segment of the population.


The concept of sustainable development is not perceived in the same way by each stakeholder: if everyone agrees that the development model adopted must be sustainable, in a way, this term generates different ideas and values from person to person. The same term development, for example, can be understood in different ways, according to the ethical beliefs, persuasions and objectives of people.
The purpose of this paper is to define and delimit the concept of sustainable development by analyzing the main agreements, principles and implementation measures.

The term “sustainable development” makes its first appearance in an official document in the text of agreement signed by thirty-three African countries in 1969, under the auspices of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. While this was the first concrete form of application of this concept, its history goes back many years before. Since the last decade of the nineteenth century, traces have been found in debates and discussions between Thomas Malthus – advocate of “apocalyptic theory” on the future of the human species – and Marie Jean Antoine Condorcet, who theorized, on the contrary, a period characterized by Human beings capable of guaranteeing future generations happiness and not just mere existence.

In the same year 1969, America gave birth to the Environmental Protection Agency, whose guidelines have, from the outset, fundamentally influenced all developments in theories and practices of environmental policies around the world. In the NEPA Act (the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969), sustainable development is defined as: “economic development that can bring benefits to present and future generations without damaging biological resources or organisms in the planet”.

hn_PNUD impulsa proyectos de desarrollo sostenible en Honduras 1

These two fundamental aspects have characterized the so-called “Brundtland Report”, also known as “Our Common Future”, the report prepared by the United Nations Commission headed by Gro Brundtland, published in 1987 after several years of studies, debates and meetings. While it can not claim the right of birthright, the 1987 Brundtland Report has undoubtedly had the merit of bringing economic and industrial development problems to the forefront of public opinion throughout the world.

In the definition, which is found in this report, we do not really talk about the concept of the environment as such, but rather refers to welfare, and therefore to the quality of the environment, thus highlighting the main ethical principle understood as responsibility On the part of the generations of today towards the future generations, and evidencing the two aspects of the environmental sustainability: the maintenance of the resources and the environmental balance of our planet.

In the same document it emphasized the protection of the needs of all individuals, with a view to universal legitimacy to aspire to better living conditions, as well as emphasize the need and importance of greater citizen participation, to implement a Process, in fact increases democratic possibilities in the international arena.


Sustainable development requires meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to implement their aspirations for a better life. Satisfying essential needs requires not only a new era of economic growth for nations that the majority of the population is poor but also ensuring that the poor have a fair share of the resources needed to sustain this growth. Equity should be supported both by political systems that ensure the effective participation of citizens in decision-making, as well as by greater democracy in international decisions.

ARTÍCULO COMPLETO Giuseppantonio De Vincentiis


Barcelona has become one of the main European urban destinations. Its attractiveness has increased the number of tourists on a constant basis, consolidating the economy of services aimed at the attention of visitors, transforming much of the central territory of the city in a few years. Barcelona is a tourist city and will continue to be, foreseeably, for many more years. And this situation is not without challenges.


In the Strategic Diagnosis presented in September 2016, the challenges and the strategic objectives are set to respond based on an in-depth analysis of the current situation and the future perspectives. And in order to respond, the Action Proposals are presented in a detailed and structured manner as a result of intensive active listening of a plurality of diverse agents, expert voices and document analysis.

Barcelona has become a tourist city in record time and nothing suggests that it cease to be in the near future. Tourism, as already mentioned at the beginning of this reflection process, can not be considered as an economic activity other than the place where it occurs. Tourism is an inherent part of the city. Assuming this scenario highlights new priorities for the destination tourism strategy.
The Strategic Plan must integrate all the instruments and mechanisms available that allow to build new sustainable future scenarios that guarantee that the generation of wealth derived from tourist activities does not put into play the future of destination as an object of desire but not as To a territory that welcomes many other economic practices and ways of living it. Secondly, we must guarantee the sustainability of the destination in an indispensable way, and do so with an extended look, incorporating other fundamental criteria into environmental issues such as the quality of jobs or the strength of business relationships with The local economic fabric. Sustainability must be considered not only as a brand attribute but as a desired effect for the entire value chain, as a milestone to be achieved in the whole destiny.

The third of the priorities must be the design of the mechanisms to guarantee the best social return of the economic activity generated by being a destination of the first order. A social return that, without dissociating itself from sustainability, must be generated from multiple redistributive mechanisms, through the generation of shared value in the territories, but also activating multiplier effects to favor the business cooperation of strategic sectors . In short, turning tourism into a lever of change to activate other non-extractive economic activities, benefiting from the constant influx of professionals and institutional positions that visit Barcelona every year.





The consolidation in recent years of Barcelona as a tourist destination has driven the development of a model of sustainable and responsible tourism that aims to improve both the quality of life of citizens and the experience of visiting tourists.

For the Barcelona City Council, tourism is an activity with great economic and social importance, which requires the commitment and effort of all the agents involved at a transversal level, with the common challenge of promoting the development of a sustainable city.


Some of the main aspects generated by tourism are:

• Creation of new infrastructures: the development of new services requires the construction of facilities that, in addition to facilitating the enjoyment of tourists, are positive for residents.
• Generation of occupation: there is the demand for qualified human capital for the development of new services and infrastructures that provide a quality stay.
• Knowledge and exchange with other cultural realities: interaction with people from different parts of the world enriches social diversity and collaborates with respect and coexistence of citizens with other cultures.


Although it is true that the benefits generated by tourism are significant, it is important not to dissociate the tourism model from that of the city with the objective of guaranteeing its sustainability, both economically, socially and environmentally.
From the momentum of the organization of the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona, ​​the Catalan city has experienced an accelerated growth in tourist activity, becoming one of the international reference destinations (Barcelona receives about 27 million visitors each year).

One of the peculiarities of tourism in Barcelona with respect to other cities is that it is a tourist reference not only on a cultural level, but also as a destination for business, congress and sports, as shown by the events that have been held recently.
In order to meet the requirements of this certification, it is necessary to carry out continuous improvement plans aimed at guaranteeing the quality of life of citizens and a good experience of visiting for tourists, making Barcelona an increasingly competitive destination.



Companies that can afford it, invest billions of dollars a year, to reduce and mitigate the environmental and social effects of the damage caused by the manufacture and transportation of their raw materials. These investments need what we know as research and development, infrastructure construction, maintenance and attest that processes are regulated and follow the laws in force.


It is necessary that such companies have incentives to achieve the objectives imposed by the standards and that the consequences of manufacturing and transportation do not directly or indirectly affect the environment. For this reason, the companies invest in state-of-the-art technologies that minimize the decline in environmental degradation, with the idea of ​​not facing costly consequences before governments, courts, public opinion, etc …
Among the problems in which an adequate environmental policy is needed, three stand out: the increasing complications surrounding official environmental assessments, the emergence of the concept of social license and the effects of changes in fiscal and regulatory environments.

At the global level environmental assessment processes have been unduly long, complicated, costly and uncertain. This increases the risks of investment by companies and could lead to the abandonment of probably successful projects. Trying to replace or improve infrastructure has become a global nightmare and the bureaucracy generated around the environment does not help the development of new technologies and innovations to come to fruition, so the first step would be to manage more Agile all that implies the evaluation at the level of Environment.

The concept of social license that exists in many countries has increased the risks of innovations and investments, which could lead to better environmental results. Social license is such a diffuse concept in deciding what projects will be allowed by regulatory institutions, which opens the door to arbitrary decisions and threatens the rule of law. Finally, a company that commits itself to a major investment, whether in infrastructure or innovation, expects a return on its investment. The yield calculated is always hypothetical, since the future is unknown, but one of the determinants of return is the cost of regulation and taxation. A volatile regulatory and fiscal environment discourages investment as it creates additional uncertainty.